Google’s paper about their large-scale distributed systems tracing solution Dapper which inspired Twitter’s Zipkin:
Here we introduce the design of Dapper, Google’s production distributed systems tracing infrastructure, and describe how our design goals of low overhead, application-level transparency, and ubiquitous deployment on a very large scale system were met. Dapper shares conceptual similarities with other tracing systems, particularly Magpie  and X-Trace , but certain design choices were made that have been key to its success in our environment, such as the use of sampling and restricting the instrumentation to a rather small number of common libraries.
Download or read the paper after the break.
Original title and link: Dapper, a Large-Scale Distributed Systems Tracing Infrastructure ( ©myNoSQL)